Diabetes & Causes of diabetes - Diabetologist sweet clinics

Diabetes is a condition where people don't produce enough insulin to meet their body's needs and/or their cells don't respond properly to insulin. Insulin is important because it moves glucose, a simple sugar, into the body's cells from the blood. It also has a number of other effects on metabolism.

The food that people eat provides the body with glucose, which is used by the cells as a source of energy. If insulin isn't available or doesn't work correctly to move glucose from the blood into cells, glucose will stay in the blood. High blood glucose levels are toxic, and cells that don't get glucose are lacking the fuel they need to function properly.

There are two main kinds of diabetes: type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. More than 90% of all people with diabetes have type 2. Overall, more than 3 million Canadians have diabetes, and the number is rapidly rising. Over a third of people with type 2 diabetes are unaware they have the disease and are not receiving the required treatment because, for many people, early symptoms are not noticeable without testing.

Type 1 diabetes occurs when the pancreas cannot make insulin. Everyone with type 1 diabetes requires insulin injections. Most people are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes during their childhood or adolescent years. Type 1 diabetes occurs most commonly in people of northern European ancestry.

Type 2 diabetes occurs when the pancreas does not make enough insulin or the body does not use insulin properly. It usually occurs in adults, although in some cases children may be affected. People with type 2 diabetes usually have a family history of this condition and 90% are overweight or obese. People with type 2 diabetes may eventually need insulin injections. This condition occurs most commonly in people of Indigenous and African descent, Hispanics, and Asians.

Another less common form is gestational diabetes, a temporary condition that occurs during pregnancy. Depending on risk factors, between 3% to 13% of Canadian women will develop gestational diabetes which can be harmful for the baby if not controlled. The problem usually clears up after delivery, but women who have had gestational diabetes have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.

Prediabetes is a term used to describe blood sugar levels that are higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes. Many people with prediabetes go on to develop diabetes.

Causes-

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder. It's believed that a combination of genetic predisposition and additional environmental (as yet unidentified) factors provoke the immune system into attacking and killing the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. There is no way to prevent type 1 diabetes from occurring.

Type 2 diabetes is mainly caused by insulin resistance. This means no matter how much or how little insulin is made, the body can't use it as well as it should. As a result, glucose can't be moved from the blood into cells. Over time, the excess sugar in the blood gradually poisons the pancreas causing it to make less insulin and making it even more difficult to keep blood glucose under control.

Obesity is a leading cause of insulin resistance – about 90% of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese. Genetic factors are also likely to be involved in the cause of type 2 diabetes. A family history of the disease has been shown to increase the chances of getting it.
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